Genocide Convention 1948
In response to the crimes of the National Socialists, the United Nations (UN) adopted the Genocide Convention and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. Genocide has been henceforth outlawed under international law. It is officially defined as an “act committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group as such”. Following the convention, it is punishable worldwide: “Persons committing genocide [...] shall be punished, whether they are constitutionally responsible rulers, public officials or private individuals.” International law, thus, limits national sovereignty, which was a novelty in 1948.